How much stuff can fit inside of something-
Usually a measurement reserved for liquid because we can’t really measure liquid without putting it inside of something.
It can be found by using the formula V=L*W*H
We measure volume in terms of liters. For our purposes, we will use milla-liters or ml
So Length(meters) * Width(meters) * Height(meters)=
Another way to say meters cubed is cubic meters (smaller measurements will be cubic centimeters or cc’s or Cm3 or ml
To find the volume of a liquid we use a graduated cylinder. The measurement of the cylinder will tell us how many ml of the liquid we have
To find the volume of an item that is not a perfect square and is not a liquid, we use water displacement. Simply put water in a graduated cylinder and measure it. Then drop the item into the cylinder and find out how much the new measurement is. Then find the difference and that is the volume of the material.
L * W * H=V
84cm3 or 84cc=V
Volume is how much stuff fits inside of something. So regardless of shape or size, if two materials have the same volume, then the same amount of stuff can fit inside. If a penny has a volume of 1ml and a plastic cube has a volume of 1cc then 1ml of water would be able to fit inside of each, regardless of the shape.
Remember that 50ml of feathers has the same volume as 50ml of cement. We are not talking about mass (weight) we are talking about how much stuff fits inside.
Density is a relationship between mass and volume- Both are properties of matter.
Mass- (weight) - measured in grams and we find it by using the triple beam balance. Volume- (fits inside)- measured in liters or ml or cm3 (cubic cm)- We find it by using the graduated cylinder, water displacement or the formula length X width X height.
To find density, we take mass and divide by volume. Density tells us how something will sit in relation to something else. In other words a helium balloon is less dense than air, that is why it floats. A brick is more dense than air, that is why it falls.
Today we are going to find the density of water. The first problem is how to measure the mass of water since it won’t just sit on the triple beam balance. Once you have figured that out you then have to figure out it’s volume. When you have mass and volume use the formula Density = mass/volume to find it’s density. The density of water should be around 1, so you can see if you are close. Since the water you put into the canister is from the fauset and might be cold or warm, it will be slightly less than 1 or slightly more than 1….. BE EXACT with your numbers- to the nearest hundredths place….. (for example - .91)
7th Grade Wave (Sound & Light) Poster Project
If you choose, you may work in groups of two
You will create a light wave poster that demonstrates some of the properties of light.
Poster Title- Properties of light
Draw or demonstrate how light waves reflect
Draw or demonstrate what happens when light is refracted by a prism
Be sure to include all of the colors of the electromagnetic spectrum and in the correct order.
Decorate and use facts from the text book
You will create a Sound wave poster that demonstrates some of the properties of sound.
Poster Title- Properties of Sound
Draw or demonstrate how Sound waves reflect (echo)
Draw or demonstrate how sound is received by the human ear.
Be sure to discuss how sound travels by way of vibration
Decorate and use facts from the text book
704- Due Wed Feb 10
703- Due Wed Feb 10
701- Due after vacation
Visible Light- The Light we see
The light we see is all colors combined. When we slow up light by refracting it through a Prism, we see the rainbow. The rainbow is a way for us to see how color is brought up. It is always in this order….
Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet
You can remember these colors in order by remembering the name….
ROY G. BIV
Properties of Waves include - Reflection or the bouncing of waves, continued reflection or echo is reverberation, Refraction or the bending of waves because they slow up or speed up as they pass through a different medium and diffraction or the changing of a wave as it moves around something.
Asthenosphere- Under the lithosphere- includes under the plastic mantle and the rest of the mantle- What the plates sit on.
Continental Drift- Hypothesis that pieces of land broke apart and drifted apart over time.
Convection Currents- Movements where heat rises and cold sinks. Cold moves to hot and the process repeats. We believe that these currents occurred in the mantle to cause the cracking of the plates.
Pangaea- The ONE continent that was on Earth before they broke apart.
Lithosphere- The layer that includes the Plastic Mantle and the crust. It is the area that we live on. Composed of both Oceanic and continental plates
Plate- Pieces of the lithosphere that include continents and oceans. They are divided by the cracks that occurred as a result of convection currents.
Sea floor spreading- A theory that along an ocean ridge, a rift allows new magma to come up and push the two plates apart, which in turn moves the continents farther apart.
Convection Currents- These movements occur in the mantle. Hot magma is heated by being on the bottom of the mantle, near the outer core. This heat rises and shoots up to the top of the mantle. It cools, and falls back to the bottom of the mantle. This constant movement in the mantle cracked the Earth’s plates and caused the continents, the rock and even the oceans to almost float above the mantle. As the hot magma shoots upward, as it comes out through the valley of the Mid Atlantic Ridge, the two plates are pushed farther and farther apart
Plate Tectonics- This is a theory that the Earth’s Crust cracked and we call the pieces or cracks, Plates. There is a lot of evidence that this occurred. First is the fact that the ocean floor seems to be getting bigger, while the continents seem to be moving farther and farther apart. Since we have already learned that the entire Earth’s crust is rock and the next layer down is the mantle, which is made up of molten magma, it does seem possible that the rock crust can move and shift over the molten magma.
Sea Floor Spreading- It seems that the cracks in the ocean floor have let magma come up and fill in, pushing the sea floor apart, making the continents move farther and farther away from each other.
major types of fossils
Imprint- when an organism lies down on wet sediment and somehow the imprint of the organism remains after the organism is gone, like a foot print in cement
Permineralized- when sediment fills the organisms soft and empty parts and other sediment completely covers the organism. In this case the sediment takes on the shape of the organism, long after the organism has decayed
Amber- when an organism is covered in Sap and the sap hardens into amber, the organism remains like a mummy inside of the amber stone…. This is useful for scientists because they can study the organisms DNA
The relative age of a fossil is a comparison of all of the fossils found on a particular area. Those fossils found closer to the bottom beds of sediment are older. Those fossils found near the top are younger. We can not necessarily find out how old a fossil is with this process, but by comparing the areas the fossils are found, we can determine which is older and about how much older
Absolute age has to do with a fossils real age. Scientists are able to do this by using chemicals and testing to find out the actual age of the fossil. They do this by radioactive decay and looking at the half lives of the parts they break down.
The fossil record is an incomplete record of all fossils found. It is incomplete because, not all extinct creatures left fossils.
Causes of weathering
The actual pushing or breaking of a rock
Acid eats away at rock and actually dissolves it.
Plants sometimes give off acids
Combinations of minerals have acidic effects
Humans spilling chemicals (like soda)
Dead animals sometimes give off acids
The moving of weathered sediment from place to place
Agents of Erosion
GRAVITY- The most common agent-
Things fall down….. landslides, mudslides or just plain movement downhill are all caused by gravity, a pull downward.
As wind and water and even acid weather rocks on mountains, it loosens the fragments, gravity pulls them downward so they fall down the mountain. This is why mountains are wider on the bottom and narrow on top.
Igneous Rock- first type of rock formed- born intrusive or extrusive (if in lava then it’s extrusive---- if it was in magma then it’s intrusive)
Over time the rock breaks and small pieces fall off and end up getting washed into an area where they are buried. The breaking off is called weathering and the washing away is called eroding. The pieces are called sediment.
After a long period of time the sediment gets buried and due to pressure it begins to form together….The new rock is called Sedimentary.
Sedimentary Rocks sometimes end up on the Earth’s surface and sometimes get buried deep with in the earth. Not quite in the Magma, but close enough for the heat to soften them. Now that they are soft, the pressure from above them pushes down and reforms them into a Metamorphic Rock (A rock that changed) This process takes many years!
Now, if the Metamorphic Rock ends up in the magma, it will become an Igneous Rock again, or if pieces break off of it, it might become sedimentary.
A rock does not have to go through the entire process. A sedimentary rock may end up in lava or magma and be re-cooked and become Igneous, with out ever being a Metamorphic or an Igneous can end up in magma or lava and reform into a new Igneous.
One way or another, the Rock Cycle says that all rocks can turn into each other!