The Earth is made up of layers. We live on the Crust which is a part of the lithosphere. The crust is solid rock and is between 3 and 30 miles deep. Below us, is a layer called the mantle. It is very hot and filled with liquid fire or magma (like lava) It is the layer where rocks and minerals are formed. The mantle is 1800 miles deep. Below that is the outer core. It is very hot and filled with liquid Iron and the inner most layer is the inner core. It is super hot and filled with solid iron.
Scientists discovered the different layers by reading sound waves as they pass through different layers.
The mantle is made up of Magma- which is like a mineral soup. Depending upon where you create a rock, or mineral, might depend upon what the mineral is. So you might find gold in California and in Africa or in South America, but you will not find it in New York. Different minerals can be found in different places, but all minerals come from the mantle.
A mineral can be defined as the Earth’s non-living material. Minerals are NOT alive! They are combinations of elements, natural chemicals that combine to form together. Minerals combine and form rocks. Minerals have many different uses, some are in food, chemicals we use, building materials and many other uses.