There are 3 major types of rocks…
Intrusive- created inside the earth (in magma)
Extrusive- Created outside the earth (in lava)
Clastic- Fragments of other rocks form together
Chemical- Form from minerals combining with chemicals or evaporates
Foliated- bands of chemicals form
Non-foliated- no real pattern of minerals
Igneous Rocks are first to form. Igneous means from fire because these rocks form in magma.
Sedimentary are the rocks that form over time from pressure when pieces of other rocks break off.
Metamorphic rocks are rocks that get buried and form from heat and pressure but do not Melt- they just reform into new and different rocks.
Determining the type of rock is dependant on several different things….
1 - If you can see clear mineral deposits, it is probably igneous
Large- probably intrusive and small- probably extrusive
2- If it appears to have pieces of rock combining to form it is probably sedimentary
3- If it appears to have layers, it is probably metamorphic
The earth's surface is constantly being eroded. This means that rocks are broken up into smaller pieces by weathering agents such as wind, water, and ice. These small pieces of rock turn into pebbles, gravel, sand, and clay. They tumble down rivers and streams. These pieces settle in a new place and begin to pile up and the sediments form flat layers. Over a long period of time, the pieces become pressed together and form solid rock called sedimentary rock. Most sedimentary rocks form under water.
Sediments can harden into sedimentary rock in two ways.
cementing-Some sediments are glued together by minerals dissolved in water.
Igneous rock (from a latin word meaning fire) Igneous rock is formed in the mantle by magma or on the crust by lava (molten rock) being cooled and becoming solid. They may form with or without crystals either below the surface as Intrusive rocks or on the surface as extrusive or volcanic rocks. Intrusive rocks are formed inside the Earth. These rocks cook in the magma longer and cool much slower, as a result the crystals are bigger. Extrusive rocks form on the Earth's surface. They EXit the Earth, usually through a volcano. These rocks have smaller crystal grains because they cool faster. They don't cook as long. Sometimes these rocks cool so fast that they do not form crystals at all. Igneous rocks like Obsidian have a glassy look or Pumice have a rough texture and holes where crystals would have formed but gas took the place of the crystal.
The Earth is made up of layers. We live on the Crust which is a part of the lithosphere. The crust is solid rock and is between 3 and 30 miles deep. Below us, is a layer called the mantle. It is very hot and filled with liquid fire or magma (like lava) It is the layer where rocks and minerals are formed. The mantle is 1800 miles deep. Below that is the outer core. It is very hot and filled with liquid Iron and the inner most layer is the inner core. It is super hot and filled with solid iron.
Scientists discovered the different layers by reading sound waves as they pass through different layers.
The mantle is made up of Magma- which is like a mineral soup. Depending upon where you create a rock, or mineral, might depend upon what the mineral is. So you might find gold in California and in Africa or in South America, but you will not find it in New York. Different minerals can be found in different places, but all minerals come from the mantle.
A mineral can be defined as the Earth’s non-living material. Minerals are NOT alive! They are combinations of elements, natural chemicals that combine to form together. Minerals combine and form rocks. Minerals have many different uses, some are in food, chemicals we use, building materials and many other uses.
Over the last week we have been preparing for our test on maps, landforms and topographic profiles. We focused on the following words...
Mesa, folded mountain, up-warped mountain, fault-block mountain, topographic, Plateau, Valley, Peak, delta, foothill, volcano, atlas, elevation, sea level, latitude, longitude, Prime Meridian, Equator and contour. We found out where the Andes and Mt. Everest are located and we explored the globe.
You will create a Poster of a researched mountain. Choose any mountain. Tell it's elevation, location, type, temperature and any other specific facts. Do not copy from the internet.... You must include a picture of the mountain (not drawn) Be creative and artistic. Make sure this is an example of your best work.
A topographic map is a map that allows you to see hills, mountains, slope and elevation. Elevation is how high something is.
When we talk about elevation, or height, we compare land forms to sea level. The level of the sea being 0. All elevation is either above sea level or below sea level.
A topographic map actually looks at the land and shows us elevation. We can also see how steep something is and how flat an area of land is.
A topographic map is simply a series of circular lines called contours. These contour lines can never intersect. They show elevation. The contour interval is the distance between the lines.
A topographic map will show you changes in elevation. The contour lines show and tell you a big story. The closer the contours, the more steep the slope. Contour lines that are farther away from each other are gentle slopes or even flat areas. Since there is no way to make a paper map 3 dimensional, a topographic map shows you a look that looks like you can see it in a 3D type way.
We will focus on specific types of landforms by identifying their characteristics.
Std. 1 Science Concepts
Rivers- large bodies of water that cut through the land and flow to a larger body (like an ocean)
Where it connects to the larger body we call
Lakes- These are large bodies of water that are surrounded by land on all sides. Most are fresh water, but not all.
Plateau- These are large areas of land where the highest elevation is relatively flat.
Mesa- a large slightly elevated piece of land with a flat area on top.
Island- a land mass that is completely surrounded by water.
Gulf- a large water area that lies within a curved coastline.
Peninsula- a land mass that is surrounded by water on three sides.
Isthmus- a narrow piece of land that joins two larger areas of land
Plain- A large flat area of land- found primarily on interior areas of land, not usually on the coast.
Hill- small areas of land that are higher than the land around them
Range- A group of mountains that are joined together.
Valley- an area of lower elevation found between two mountains
Peak- an area of high elevation found on top of a mountain- typically the highest point.
Pass- an area that can be traveled upon between two or more mountains.
Foothills- a group of hills found on the edge of a mountain range.
Mountains- Large land masses that have been forced together as the Earth’s under layers move. These masses push upward and mountains actually grow.
There are 3 major types of mountains…
Folded mountains- These mountains form when two
Of the earths plates (solid areas under the land
We walk on push together) Folded mountains
Can be identified by rounded tops.
Un-warped or Up-warped Mountains- These are formed when two plates actually crash into each other. The results are large mountains with very sharp peaks.
Fault-block mountains- These are formed when 1 plate moves toward the other, but the other is not as strong and moves under the pushing plate. The result is one mountain pushing upward and the other being blocked or seeming to lean into it.
Volcano- Although we classify a volcano as a mountain, it forms a little different. Here, the plates shift, allowing a path from the under layer of the earth to the surface. The result is lava leaking outward onto the Earth’s surface. As the lava dries, it turns to rock and the Volcano grows as more rock develops
We will begin to discover landforms by reviewing how to read a map.
Equator, Prime Meridian, Longitude, Latitude, Compass Rose, Key, Quadrant
We will begin to understand the different types of landforms on the Earth and where some are located
mountain, plateau, plains, mesa, valley, island, pennisula,
mouth of river, delta, lake, gulf, sea, ocean, bay
We will begin to understand different models and projections of the earth.
We will research and present information on various landforms on Earth by creating posters of some of the more famous locations.
Here are the questions...
Attach a sheet
List the materials we used…
What relationship does mass and volume have in terms of density?
What is the trick to remembering the formula for density?
How would you describe volume?