The transport of loosened, dissolved or worn away rock and soil by natural processes. Erosion transports rocky material after layers of rock and soil have been broken down into smaller pieces
Agents- there are 4 agents of erosion, and there are at least 4 solutions to slow down the agents. The agents of erosion are Wind, Water, gravity and Glacial.
Solutions are Silt blankets, Silt walls, Gabion Walls and Multicellular underlay.
Silt Walls and Fences are simply placed at the foots of hills and slopes too stop wash-off. Silt Blankets are placed over the banks of gentle-sloping creeks and shores. Gabion Walls are made of large rocks which are interlocked together by the use of a metal netting. These walls are used as retaining walls on hills, rivers and creeks. Multicellular underlay is laid underneath the layers of soil and sediment. The Multicellular configuration holds the layers of soil in place.
Soil conservation is maintaining good soil health, by various practices. The aim of soil conservation methods is to prevent soil erosion, prevent soil's overuse and prevent soil contamination from chemicals. There are various measures that are used to maintain soil health, and prevent the above harms to soil. Here are the soil conservation methods which are practiced for soil management.
Planting Vegetation: This is one of the most effective and cost saving soil conservation methods. This measure is among soil conservation methods used by farmers. By planting trees, grass, plants, soil erosion can be greatly prevented. Plants help to stabilize the properties of soil and trees also act as a wind barrier and prevents soil from being blown away.
Contour Ploughing: Contour farming or ploughing is used by farmers, wherein they plough across a slope and follow the elevation contour lines. This methods prevents water run off, and thus prevents soil erosion by allowing water to slowly penetrate the soil.
Watering the Soil: We water plants and trees, but it is equally important to water soil to maintain its health. Soil erosion occurs if the soil is blown away by wind. By watering and settling the soil, one can prevent soil erosion from the blowing away of soil by wind. One of the effective soil conservation methods in India is the drip irrigation system which provides water to the soil without the water running off.
Salinity Management: Excessive collection of salts in the soil has harmful effects on the metabolism of plants. Salinity can lead to death of the vegetation and thus cause soil erosion, which is why salinity management is important.
Terracing: Terracing is among one of the best soil conservation methods, where cultivation is done on a terrace leveled section of land. In terracing, farming is done on a unique step like structure and the possibility of water running off is slowed down.
Gravity & Erosion
One of the principal sources of erosion is gravity, which is also the force behind creep, slumping (a large block of soil and rock), rockfalls, mudslides & landslides Creep is not quick or catastrophic but more mass movement actually occurs
Landforms shaped by Erosion
Mountains- peaks, valleys, landslides, mudslides..
Plains & Plateaus- Plateaus erode into hills & valleys or mesas
Plains are not usually affected but change due to erosion